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Let's write

5/11/21

Homework

  1. Work with on your writing project.

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Reading List

"The Depth of Mischief" by Veleta Hayles

'Tis A Memoir' by Frank McCourt

Common Era

24.09.2021

"Era Vulgaris" redirects here. For the Queens of the Stone Age album, see Era Vulgaris (album).

Not to be confused with common area.

Common Era (CE) is one of the year notations used for the Gregorian calendar (and its predecessor, the Julian calendar), the world's most widely used calendar era. Before the Common Era (BCE) is the era before CE. BCE and CE are alternatives to the Dionysian BC and AD notations, respectively. The Dionysian era distinguishes eras using the notations BC ("Before Christ") and AD (Latin: Anno Domini, in [the] year of [the] Lord).[1] The two notation systems are numerically equivalent: "2021 CE" and "AD 2021" each describe the current year; "400 BCE" and "400 BC" are each the same year.[1][2] The Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world today, and is an international standard for civil calendars.[3]

The expression has been traced back to 1615, when it first appeared in a book by Johannes Kepler as the Latin: annus aerae nostrae vulgaris (year of our common era),[4][5] and to 1635 in English as "Vulgar Era".[a] The term "Common Era" can be found in English as early as 1708,[6] and became more widely used in the mid-19th century by Jewish religious scholars. Since the later 20th century, CE and BCE are popular in academic and scientific publications as religiously neutral terms.[7][8] They are used by others who wish to be sensitive to non-Christians by not explicitly referring to Jesus as "Christ" nor as Dominus ("Lord") through use of the other abbreviations.[9][10


The Georgian  Calendar

24.09.2021

Gregorian calendar, also called New Style calendar, solar dating system now in general use. It was proclaimed in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a reform of the Julian calendar.

By the Julian reckoning, the solar year comprised 365 1/4 days, and the intercalation of a “leap day” every four years was intended to maintain correspondence between the calendar and the seasons. A slight inaccuracy in the measurement (the solar year comprising more precisely 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 45.25 seconds) caused the calendar dates of the seasons to regress almost one day per century.

Although this regression had amounted to 14 days by Pope Gregory’s time, he based his reform on restoration of the vernal equinox, then falling on March 11, to March 21, the date it occurred in 325 CE, which was the time of the First Council of Nicaea, and not the date of the equinox at the time of the birth of Christ, when it fell on March 25. The change was effected by advancing the calendar 10 days after October 4, 1582, the day following being reckoned as October 15.

A Naturalist

 

Ephraim George Squier 

(June 17, 1821 – April 17, 1888), usually cited as E. G. Squier, was an American archaeologist, history writer, painter and newspaper editor.

Squier was born in Bethlehem, New York, the son of a minister and his wife. His father was of English descent and his mother ethnic Palatine German, from immigrants who settled in New York in the early 1700s. wife. In early youth he worked on a farm, attended and taught school, studied engineering, and became interested in American antiquities. The Panic of 1837 made an engineering career unfeasible, so he pursued literature and journalism. He was associated in the publication of the New York State Mechanic at Albany 1841–1842. In 1843–1848, he engaged in journalism in Hartford, Connecticut and then edited the Chillicothe, Ohio, weekly newspaper the Scioto Gazette.

 

During this period, Squier collaborated with physician Edwin H. Davis on the book, Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, which was issued in 1848. The work was a landmark in American scientific research, the study of the prehistoric Mound Builders of North America, and the early development of archaeology as a scientific discipline. The book was the first volume of the Smithsonian Institution's Contributions to Knowledge series and the Institution's first publication. Among Squier and Davis's most important achievements was their systematic approach to analysing and documenting the sites they surveyed, including the Serpent Mound in Peebles, Ohio, which they discovered in 1846. They also mapped the Mound City Group in Chillicothe, Ohio, which has been restored using their data and is now part of Hopewell Culture National Historical Park. Squier and Davis's collection of ancient Mound objects is now kept at the British Museum.

 

Ideas of Ephraim was and what people abstract to relive his image.  Would they be successful what obstacles that would stand in their way and prevent them from reliving Ephraim? 

Signatures of the trans-Atlantic movement

Black History Month

 

08.10.2021

Africa is the geographic origin of millions of individuals of recent African descent in the United States and Caribbean whose ancestors were forcibly brought to the New World as slaves. Historical records have documented the movement of Africans into this region of the world primarily from locations along the western coast of Africa (from Senegal to Angola) (Figure 3) [94]. Subsequent to migration of indigenous Africans, there was considerable admixture with Europeans with a smaller contribution from indigenous American populations. Specifically, Afro-Caribbean populations are estimated to have ~65– 95% West African, ~4–27% European, and ~0–6% Native American ancestry [9599].

 

Although pooled individuals from the Caribbean have a high proportion of African ancestry, fine-scale genetic structure has been observed within and between islands (particularly, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Thomas, St. Vincent, Jamaica, and Trinidad) due to regional differences in levels of African and/or European ancestry [100•]. Similarly, a study of genetic admixture within Puerto Rico showed that levels of African ancestry varied geographically with the highest proportion occurring in the eastern part of the island where African slaves and their descendants historically engaged in sugar pro-duction [101]. In addition, genome-wide data have suggested that patterns of genetic ancestry in Cuba, Puerto Rico and Hispaniola (the Greater Antilles) were consistent with a model of two migration events from different regions of western Africa, implying that Afro-Caribbean populations have mixed African ancestry [102•].

 

These results are also congruent with a Y-chromosome study that found diverse haplotypes in Afro-Caribbeans from the Bahamas that were inferred to originate from different ethnic groups within West Central Africa [103]. Furthermore, isotope data from skeletal remains of enslaved Africans in Barbados suggested that first generation captives had different dietary histories likely due to differences in their geographic origins in Africa [104]. During the slave trade, the Caribbean has been an end-point of migration for hundreds of years, resulting in diverse genetic patterns. Because of the complexity of past migration events, additional studies across a broader geographic range of the Caribbean are needed to fully understand the extent of genetic variability and the different demographic processes that have contributed to it in Afro-Caribbean populations.

African Americans also have a high proportion of ancestry originating from western Africa, particularly Bantu and non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian ancestry [3,36,105]. However, African Americans are characterized by genetic variability between populations living in different regions of the United States. An analysis of Y-chromosome loci genotyped in ~1300 individuals from Africa, the Caribbean, the District of Columbia (DC) and South Carolina (SC) detected genetic differentiation among African Americans that was largely attributed to geo-graphic differences in levels of European admixture [106•,107]. Specifically, a low proportion of European admixture was observed in individuals from SC compared to DC. These findings are in agreement with a prior study that also found low levels of European ancestry in SC, particularly among the Gullah Islanders [107,108].

 

Genome-wide data also demonstrated that individuals who self-identified as African American have a range of genetic ancestry with some individuals showing close to no West African ancestry, while others have almost complete West African ancestry [36]. Indeed, these studies indicate that populations of African descent have a complex history resulting in genetic heterogeneity. In the future, African Americans could potentially become more genetically diverse. Particularly, this pattern could emerge as individuals migrate from regions of Africa, not originally represented in the African Diaspora, into the United States contributing ancestry to subsequent generations of individuals who may self-identify as African Americans.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black History: Celebration of Black History Month 2021

22.10. 2021

 

The Colony of Jamaica [ Jamaica was an English colony from 1655 (when it was captured by the English from Spain), and a British Colony from 1707 until 1962, when it became independent. Jamaica became a Crown colony in 1866.]   gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962, following more than 300 years under British control. Black nationalism was particularly fostered in Jamaica in the first half of the 20th century, the most notable Black leader in the country being Marcus Garvey, a labor leader and an advocate of the Back-to-Africa movement, which called for everyone of African descent to return to the homelands of their ancestors.[1] Nationalist sentiment climaxed during the British West Indian labour unrest of 1934–39, during which protests occurred between Black and British residents of the British West Indies. Following the end of World War II, the decolonisation movement began, with local politicians in Jamaica and in the British Empire transitioning their crown colonies into independent states. After Norman Manley was elected to the post of Chief Minister in 1955, the process of decolonisation was made even quicker, especially with his constitutional amendments that he enacted that allowed for greater home rule and established the basis for a cabinet of ministers of ministers under a Prime Minister of Jamaica.[2]

Jamaica also entered the West Indies Federation, a political union of 10 colonial Caribbean islands that were combined to become a single, independent state. Jamaica's role in the WIF was unpopular, which resulted in the popular opinion in the 1961 West Indies referendum of 1961 to rule that the colony will withdraw from the union the following year. On 19 July 1962, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the Jamaica Independence Act, granting independence effective on 6 August, establishing the role of the Governor General of Jamaica and enshrining the role of head of state in the Queen of Jamaica.

 

Marcus Mosiah Garvey Sr. ONH (17 August 1887 – 10 June 1940) was a Jamaican political activist, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator. He was the founder and first President-General of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL, commonly known as UNIA), through which he declared himself Provisional President of Africa. Ideologically a black nationalist and Pan-Africanist, his ideas came to be known as Garveyism.

Garvey was born to a moderately prosperous Afro-Jamaican family in Saint Ann's Bay, Jamaica, and apprenticed into the print trade as a teenager. Working in Kingston, he became involved in trade unionism before living briefly in Costa Rica, Panama, and England. Returning to Jamaica, he founded UNIA in 1914. In 1916, he moved to the United States and established a UNIA branch in New York City's Harlem district. Emphasising unity between Africans and the African diaspora, he campaigned for an end to European colonial rule across Africa and the political unification of the continent. He envisioned a unified Africa as a one-party state, governed by himself, that would enact laws to ensure black racial purity. Although he never visited the continent, he was committed to the Back-to-Africa movement, arguing that some people of African descent should migrate there. Garveyism ideas became increasingly popular and UNIA grew in membership. However, his black separatist views—and his relations with white racists such as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) to advance their shared interest in racial separatism—divided Garvey from other prominent African-American civil rights activists such as W. E. B. Du Bois who promoted racial integration.

 

Afro-Jamaicans are Jamaicans of predominantly or partial Sub-Saharan African descent. They represent the largest ethnic group in the country. Most Jamaicans of mixed-race descent self-report as just Jamaican.[1]

 

 

Signatures of the trans-Atlantic movement

Black History Month

08.10.2021

Africa is the geographic origin of millions of individuals of recent African descent in the United States and Caribbean whose ancestors were forcibly brought to the New World as slaves. Historical records have documented the movement of Africans into this region of the world primarily from locations along the western coast of Africa (from Senegal to Angola) (Figure 3) [94]. Subsequent to migration of indigenous Africans, there was considerable admixture with Europeans with a smaller contribution from indigenous American populations. Specifically, Afro-Caribbean populations are estimated to have ~65– 95% West African, ~4–27% European, and ~0–6% Native American ancestry [9599].

 

Although pooled individuals from the Caribbean have a high proportion of African ancestry, fine-scale genetic structure has been observed within and between islands (particularly, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Thomas, St. Vincent, Jamaica, and Trinidad) due to regional differences in levels of African and/or European ancestry [100•]. Similarly, a study of genetic admixture within Puerto Rico showed that levels of African ancestry varied geographically with the highest proportion occurring in the eastern part of the island where African slaves and their descendants historically engaged in sugar pro-duction [101]. In addition, genome-wide data have suggested that patterns of genetic ancestry in Cuba, Puerto Rico and Hispaniola (the Greater Antilles) were consistent with a model of two migration events from different regions of western Africa, implying that Afro-Caribbean populations have mixed African ancestry [102•].

 

These results are also congruent with a Y-chromosome study that found diverse haplotypes in Afro-Caribbeans from the Bahamas that were inferred to originate from different ethnic groups within West Central Africa [103]. Furthermore, isotope data from skeletal remains of enslaved Africans in Barbados suggested that first generation captives had different dietary histories likely due to differences in their geographic origins in Africa [104]. During the slave trade, the Caribbean has been an end-point of migration for hundreds of years, resulting in diverse genetic patterns. Because of the complexity of past migration events, additional studies across a broader geographic range of the Caribbean are needed to fully understand the extent of genetic variability and the different demographic processes that have contributed to it in Afro-Caribbean populations.

African Americans also have a high proportion of ancestry originating from western Africa, particularly Bantu and non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian ancestry [3,36,105]. However, African Americans are characterized by genetic variability between populations living in different regions of the United States. An analysis of Y-chromosome loci genotyped in ~1300 individuals from Africa, the Caribbean, the District of Columbia (DC) and South Carolina (SC) detected genetic differentiation among African Americans that was largely attributed to geo-graphic differences in levels of European admixture [106•,107]. Specifically, a low proportion of European admixture was observed in individuals from SC compared to DC. These findings are in agreement with a prior study that also found low levels of European ancestry in SC, particularly among the Gullah Islanders [107,108].

 

Genome-wide data also demonstrated that individuals who self-identified as African American have a range of genetic ancestry with some individuals showing close to no West African ancestry, while others have almost complete West African ancestry [36]. Indeed, these studies indicate that populations of African descent have a complex history resulting in genetic heterogeneity. In the future, African Americans could potentially become more genetically diverse. Particularly, this pattern could emerge as individuals migrate from regions of Africa, not originally represented in the African Diaspora, into the United States contributing ancestry to subsequent generations of individuals who may self-identify as African Americans.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Historic Well

Women used to hang a bonnet on the outside to stop men coming in while they were bathing (Image: HALL Mr and Mrs SC; The Book of South Wales, the Wye, and the Coast)

The early history of Taff's Well is shrouded in obscurity. A book published in 1833 states that it was "sometimes called 'Ffynnon Dwym' or the tepid well."

Surveys in 1877 deduced that the well itself would originally have been surrounded by green fields, but after a weir was built across the River Taff to supply water to the Pentyrch iron works, the riverbed moved eastwards.

As a result, the well now borders the river and was often covered by floodwater.

There is some debate as to whether the well was known by the Romans. Until the mid-eighteenth century, the well was probably used on a purely local basis.

Gradually, people began to travel from afar attracted by testimonies of the well's healing powers and aided by the building of the turnpike road, canal and railway.

It was not until the mid-nineteenth century that there were reports that the well was enclosed.

Healing powers?

 

The orange scum is mineral deposits left at the surface of the water (Image: Rob Browne)

By 1760, bathing and consumption of mineral and thermal waters was growing in popularity, with Llandrindod Wells and Builth Wells leading the fashionable trend in Wales.

Analysing the waters at Taff's Well, a German chemist called D.W Linden suggested that consumption of several pints every day would be a good cure for rheumatism.

Linden undertook a series of experiments, which he detailed in a hand-written manuscript now kept at the National Museum of Wales in Cardiff, and suggested patients should "drink it from the fountain, to begin with a pint and to increase every day a small glass till he come to three half pints or more".

The taking of the water should be followed by "a hearty breakfast upon milk and then [the patient should] go to bed and compose himself to sleep so much he can".

Competitions & Events

National Association of Writers in Education

 

https://www.nawe.co.uk/the-writers-compass/events-and-opportunities/competitions-and-submissions.html

Research Tools

Mass Observation online

https://www.massobservation.amdigital.co.uk/#

Invitation to join a Writing  Course  

 

 A writing course with a difference. Register in the spring and start in the autumn. Click the links below to access the course details.

https://cal.mixmax.com/erickoester-37/booktopicchat

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Gu8UbiRyxExXRo8e6Gng_l_6nymupc-3/view?usp=sharing

Greener Pastures

comedy and satire run by writers obsessed with writing, out joking & out funning each other. Anything welcomed, 100-700words.

Email: Email: greenersubmissions@gmail.com

 

The Periodical, Forlorn

Website:www.periodicalforn.com

 

Lunate

Website: https://lunate.co.uk

Email: submissions@lunate.co.uk