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Reading List


by Tara Westover

Black, Blessed & British

by Claudette Athea Douglas

My Name is Daphne

by Arthur Smith

'Tis A Memoir by Frank McCourt

Historical Article possible the oldest silent film



Roundhay Garden Scene is an 1888 short silent actuality film recorded by French inventor Louis Le Prince. Filmed at Oakwood Grange in RoundhayLeeds in the north of England on 14 October 1888, it is believed to be the oldest surviving film in existence.[1]

The camera used was patented in the United Kingdom on 16 November 1888

According to Le Prince's son, Adolphe, the film was made at Oakwood Grange, the home of Joseph and Sarah Whitley, in RoundhayLeedsWest Riding of Yorkshire, England on 14 October 1888.[3] The footage features Louis's son Adolphe Le Prince, his mother-in-law Sarah Whitley 

She is the earliest known born person ever to appear in a film, and also the first known person who had appeared in a film to die

The footage features Louis's son Adolphe Le Prince, his mother-in-law Sarah Whitley his father-in-law Joseph Whitley (1817 – 12 January 1891) and Annie Hartley. His father-in-law Joseph Whitley (1817 – 12 January 1891) and Annie Hartley in the garden of Oakwood Grange, leisurely walking around the garden of the premises. Sarah is seen walking – or dancing – backwards as she turns around, and Joseph's coat tails are seen flying as he also is turning. Joseph and Sarah Whitley were the parents of Le Prince's wife, Elizabeth. Annie Hartley is believed to be a friend of Le Prince and his wife.[4] Oakwood Grange was demolished in 1972 and redeveloped with modern housing; the only remains are the garden walls at the end of Oakwood Grange Lane.[5

favored by designers. It's easy on the eyes and a great go to font for titles, paragraphs & more.

Origins of The Labour Movement


The Haymarket Riot (also known as the “Haymarket Incident” and “Haymarket Affair”) occurred on May 4, 1886, when a labour protest rally near Chicago’s Haymarket Square turned into a riot after someone threw a bomb at police. At least eight people died as a result of the violence that day. Despite a lack of evidence against them, eight radical labour activists were convicted in connection with the bombing. The Haymarket Riot was viewed as a setback for the organized labour movement in America, which was fighting for rights like the eight-hour workday. At the same time, many in the labour movement viewed the convicted men as martyrs.

U.S. Labour in the 1800s

Strikes by industrial workers were increasingly common in the United States in the 1880s, a time when working conditions were often dismal and dangerous and wages were low.

American Federation of Labour

During the 1880s, that division fatally eroded. Despite its labour reform rhetoric, the Knights of Labour attracted large numbers of workers hoping to improve their immediate conditions. As the Knights carried on strikes and organized along industrial lines, the threatened national trade unions demanded that the group confine itself to its professed labour reform purposes. When it refused, they joined in December 1886 to form the American Federation of Labour (AFL). The new federation marked a break with the past, for it denied to labour reform any further role in the struggles of American workers. In part, the assertion of trade union supremacy stemmed from an undeniable reality. As industrialism matured, labour reform lost its meaning–hence the confusion and ultimate failure of the Knights of Labour. Marxism taught Samuel Gompers and his fellow socialists that trade unionism was the indispensable instrument for preparing the working class for revolution. The founders of the AFL translated this notion into the principle of “pure and simple” unionism: only by self-organization along occupational lines and by a concentration on job-conscious goals would the worker be “furnished with the weapons which shall secure his industrial emancipation.”

Short history the early Americans


4th June 2021

Boorstin’s the American historian has a controlling metaphor; that the United States is a collection of peoples who have learned, over the years and through a series of dramatic and traumatic events, to think as one people—in other words, to become a nation with a core basis of shared national beliefs and values that transcend a wide variety of backgrounds. The subdivisions in the first volume of this two-volume set illustrate this approach clearly: From “An Assortment of Plantations,” the work moves to “Thirteen States Are Born,” then changes to “American Ways of Growing,” advances to “Thinking Like Americans,” and ends with “The Rocky Road to Union.” In this fashion, Boorstin traces the development of the American national consciousness from the Colonial period, when settlers considered themselves merely transplanted Englishmen and Englishwomen, to the strangely uniting tragedy of the Civil War, when the separate states were finally woven into a single nation.


In his historical landscape he emphasises that history brings the newly reunited United States into the modern world and places its emphasis on how the national government used its newly acquired powers to enhance and advance the rights and responsibilities of all citizens, black people as well as white people, women as well as men. “The Go-Getters” outlines the role of economic freedom in the surprising yet perhaps inevitable development of American industry during the early years of the twentieth century. “People on the Move

The history of the United States was preceded by the arrival of Native Americans in North America around 15,000 BC. Numerous indigenous cultures formed, and many

disappeared in the 1500s. The arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 started the European colonization of the Americas. Most colonies were formed after 1600, and the United States was the first nation whose most distant origins are fully recorded. By the 1760s, the thirteen British colonies contained 2.5 million people along the Atlantic Coast.


Timeline of early America


During the latter part of the 18th century, farmers relied on oxen and horses to power crude wooden plows. All sowing was accomplished using a hand-held hoe, reaping of hay and grain with a sickle. But in the 1790s, the horse-drawn cradle and scythe were introduced, the first of several inventions.


16th century—Spanish cattle introduced into the Southwest

17th century—Small land grants commonly made to individual settlers; large tracts often granted to well-connected colonists 

1619—First enslaved African people brought to Virginia; by 1700, enslaved people were displacing southern indentured servants

17th and 18th centuries—All forms of domestic livestock, except turkeys, were imported at some time

17th and 18th centuries—Crops borrowed from Native Americans included maize, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkins, gourds, squashes, watermelons, beans, grapes, berries, pecans, black walnuts, peanuts, maple sugar, tobacco, and cotton, white potatoes indigenous to South America

17th and 18th centuries—New U.S. crops from Europe included clover, alfalfa, timothy, small grains, and fruits and vegetables

17th and 18th centuries—enslaved African people introduced grain and sweet sorghum, melons, okra, and peanuts

18th century—English farmers settled in New England villages; Dutch, German, Swedish, Scotch-Irish, and English farmers settled on isolated Middle Colony farmsteads; English and some French farmers settled on plantations in Tidewater and on isolated Southern Colony farmsteads in Piedmont; Spanish immigrants, mostly lower-middle-class and indentured servants, settled the Southwest and California.


A Naturalist


Ephraim George Squier 

(June 17, 1821 – April 17, 1888), usually cited as E. G. Squier, was an American archaeologist, history writer, painter and newspaper editor.

Squier was born in Bethlehem, New York, the son of a minister and his wife. His father was of English descent and his mother ethnic Palatine German, from immigrants who settled in New York in the early 1700s. wife. In early youth he worked on a farm, attended and taught school, studied engineering, and became interested in American antiquities. The Panic of 1837 made an engineering career unfeasible, so he pursued literature and journalism. He was associated in the publication of the New York State Mechanic at Albany 1841–1842. In 1843–1848, he engaged in journalism in Hartford, Connecticut and then edited the Chillicothe, Ohio, weekly newspaper the Scioto Gazette.


During this period, Squier collaborated with physician Edwin H. Davis on the book, Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, which was issued in 1848. The work was a landmark in American scientific research, the study of the prehistoric Mound Builders of North America, and the early development of archaeology as a scientific discipline. The book was the first volume of the Smithsonian Institution's Contributions to Knowledge series and the Institution's first publication. Among Squier and Davis's most important achievements was their systematic approach to analysing and documenting the sites they surveyed, including the Serpent Mound in Peebles, Ohio, which they discovered in 1846. They also mapped the Mound City Group in Chillicothe, Ohio, which has been restored using their data and is now part of Hopewell Culture National Historical Park. Squier and Davis's collection of ancient Mound objects is now kept at the British Museum.


Ideas of Ephraim was and what people abstract to relive his image.  Would they be successful what obstacles that would stand in their way and prevent them from reliving Ephraim? 

Taken  from Wikipedia free encyclopaedia research


                               Musical life of Vivaldi


Antonio Lucio Vivaldi was  Italian born on 4 March 1678 in Venice, He was baptized immediately after his birth at his home by the midwife, which led to a belief that his life was somehow in danger. Vivaldi had five known siblings: Bonaventura Vivaldi, Margarita Vivaldi, Cecilia Vivaldi, Francesco Vivaldi, and Zanetta Vivaldi.

His father, Giovanni Battista, was a barber before becoming a professional violinist, taught Antonio to play the violin and then toured Venice playing the violin with his young son. Antonio was probably taught at an early age, judging by the extensive musical knowledge he had acquired by the age of 24, when he started working at the Ospedale della Pietà

Antonio  Vivaldi was Baroque composer, violinist, teacher, impresario, and Roman Catholic priest. He was regarded as one of the greatest Baroque composers, and his influence during his lifetime was widespread across Europe, being paramount in the development of Johann Sebastian Bach's instrumental music. He composed many instrumental concertos, for the violin and a variety of other musical instruments, as well as sacred choral works and more than forty operas. His best-known work is a series of violin concertos known as the Four Seasons.

Many of his compositions were written for the all-female music ensemble of the Ospedale della Pietà, a home for abandoned children. Vivaldi had worked there as a Catholic priest for 18 months and was employed there from 1703 to 1715 and from 1723 to 1740. Vivaldi also had some success with expensive staging of his operas in Venice, Mantua and Vienna. After meeting the Emperor Charles VI, Vivaldi moved to Vienna, hoping for royal support. However, the Emperor died soon after Vivaldi's arrival, and Vivaldi himself died in poverty less than a year later.

After almost two centuries of decline, Vivaldi's music underwent a revival in the early 20th century, with much scholarly research devoted to his work. Many of Vivaldi's compositions, once thought lost, have been rediscovered - in one case as recently as 2006. His music remains widely popular in the present day and is regularly played all over the world.

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